Bromine

Symbol:  Br
Group #:  17
Group Name: Halogens
Atomic #:  35
Mass #:  80
Atomic Mass: 79.904

Electron Configuration:  1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p6-4s2-3d10-4p5

Physical Properties:

Boiling Point:   59.47 C
Melting Point:  -7.25 C
Density:  3.12
Radioactivity: 70-94 Br
Color:   Dark-reddish brown
Odor:   Foul smelling odor
Hardness:  low
Brittle:   gas or liquid… would assume low
Malleability:  low

Chemical Properties:
Bromine when at room temperature, is a very dangerous and toxic chemical.  When in contact with the skin is initiated, bromine forms sores which heal very slowly.  Bromine is soluble in water and at temperatures of below 7 C, it takes on a solid form.  Bromine also chemically reacts with the alkali group and water forming HBr and HOBr.  Bromine is chemically reactive with many metallic elements and compounds.  It is only slightly less active than chlorine.  Bromine also has a bleaching action.

History:
 Bromine was originally discovered by a French Chemist who’s name was Anotoine J. Balard.  He discovered the element bromine in 1826.  It was however not manufactured in any significant quantity until 1860.  Bromine located in the 17 group of the periodic table.  This group is known as the halogen group.  Bromine is naturally occurring, however it is never found as a free element.  Bromine occurs naturally in seawater and was manufactured by extracting it from seawater due to the increased demand for its use in products such baquacil.  It is also found as a by-product of the production of potassium from brines in abundant bromides.

Uses:
Bromine today has many valuable and essential uses.  The first known use of Bromine was as a bromine compound which created the color “royal purple” for the ancient Romans.  This was obtained from mussels and was very expensive, and only the rich could afford this distinct color.  Today bromine is used widely in swimming pools to control algae and bacteria in products such as baquacil.  It is used as a very effective flame retardant commonly in computers and other appliances containing plastics protecting sensitive equipment from fire.  Bromine also plays an important role in pharmaceutical uses helping with various ailments, conditions, and diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's.  In addition to all this bromine is used as pesticides, biocides and solvents.

References:
Encarta Encyclopedia.  (1993-1999)  Bromine.  [Internet].  Available World Wide Web:  http://encarta.msn.com/encarta/print.asp?z=2&br=0&pg=8&ti=05a3a000&sc=2.  Accessed on October 17, 1999 9:48 PM

The Bromine Science and Environmental Forum.  (1999). Where bromine is used.  [Internet].  Available World Wide Web:  http://www.bsef.com/WhereBromineIsUsed.htm.  Accessed on October 17, 1999 9:38 PM

Andrew O.
November 12, 1999